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South Africa - Venda Malnutrition and Enteric Disease Study 2009-2014


General Info
Original or alternative title 
Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health (MAL-ED) Study
Coverage type 
Time period covered 
11/2009 - 02/2014
Series or system 
Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health (MAL-ED) Study
Data type
  • Exam
  • Household
  • Individual
  • Interview
  • Longitudinal

The purpose of this study was to collect longitudinal data on the relationships between malnutrition and enteric infections in children ages 17 days through approximately 2 years.

The data were collected through in-person interviews in the home, anthropometry, cognitive exams, and biological samples. The samples collected included blood, urine, and stool. The households were visited twice weekly for interviews and stool samples. Anthropometric measurements were gathered at monthly intervals. Blood samples were taken at 7 and 15 months of age to assess micronutrient levels and vaccination status. Children underwent the lactulose-mannitol urine test for gut function at 3, 6, 9, 15, and 24 months.

The study was conducted in subnational areas of Bangladesh, Brazil, India, Peru, Pakistan, Nepal, South Africa, and Tanzania. Each site had a sample size of approximately 200 children.

Adenovirus, Aeromonas, Alcohol use, Amoebiasis, Anemia, Antibiotics, Antihelminthics, Appetite loss, Assets, BCG vaccines, Birth weight, Blood tests, Breastfeeding, Breathing difficulty, Campylobacter enteritis, Child anthropometry, Children, Cholera, Cooking fuels, Cough, Cryptosporidiosis, DTP vaccines, Diarrhea, Diarrheal diseases, E. coli, Education, Electricity, Ethnicity, Fever, Health care use, Health status, Height, Hemoglobin, Hepatitis B vaccines, Hib vaccines, Hookworm disease, Household air pollution, Household heat, Household water treatment, Housing conditions, Housing materials, Hygiene, Immunization, Income, Influenza vaccines, Intestinal infectious diseases, Intestinal nematode infections, Japanese encephalitis vaccines, Land ownership, Languages, Live births, Livestock, Lower respiratory infections, MMR vaccines, Malnutrition, Marital status, Marriage age, Mass media, Maternal age, Maternal anthropometry, Measles vaccines, Mumps vaccines, Night blindness, Norovirus, Physical examinations, Pneumococcal vaccines, Polio vaccines, Population characteristics, Pregnancy complications, Rabies vaccines, Race, Refrigeration, Religion, Rotavirus, Rotavirus vaccines, Rubella vaccines, Salmonella infections, Sanitation, Schistosomiasis, School enrollment, Shigellosis, Social class, Stool tests, Summary birth history, Symptoms, Telephones, Tetanus toxoid vaccines, Tobacco smoking, Transportation, Trichuriasis, Typhoid and paratyphoid vaccines, Urine tests, Vitamin A supplements, Vomiting, Water supply, Weight, Yellow fever vaccines, Zinc