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Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019) Data Input Sources Tool

The Global Burden of Disease Study 2019 (GBD 2019) synthesizes a large number of input sources to estimate mortality, causes of death and illness, and risk factors.

The Data Input Sources Tool lets you explore GBD 2019 input sources and retrieve relevant metadata.

Use the selection boxes below to see these input sources by GBD component, geography, and cause. After you have made your selection, you can view and access GHDx catalog records for input sources used by GBD.

Download these input sources as a CSV file to see more information about how they were used in the analysis for the Global Burden of Disease. This CSV file contains relevant metadata about the input sources as suggested in the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER), a statement that promotes best practices in reporting health estimates.

For detailed information on the tool and the contents of the CSV files, refer to the following documents:


Results for component: ALL GBD, location: South Africa.

Total Citations: 623

Total Source Metadata Rows: 9552233



Lerer LB, Butchart A, Blanche MT. 'A bothersome death' -- narrative accounts of infant mortality in Cape Town, South Africa. Soc Sci Med. 1995; 40(7): 945-53.

Thorogood M, Connor M, Tollman S, Lewando Hundt G, Fowkes G, Marsh J. A cross-sectional study of vascular risk factors in a rural South African population: data from the Southern African Stroke Prevention Initiative (SASPI). BMC Public Health. 2007; 326.

Naicker N, Mathee A, Barnes B. A follow-up cross-sectional study of environmental lead exposure in early childhood in urban South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2013; 103(12): 935-8.

Peer N, Steyn K, Lombard C, Gwebushe N, Levitt N. A High Burden of Hypertension in the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11): e78567.

Moodley J. A review of maternal deaths in South Africa during 1998. National Committee on Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths. S Afr Med J. 2000; 90(4): 367-73.

Lindsay R, Newman RT, Speelman WJ. A study of airborne radon levels in Paarl houses (South Africa) and associated source terms, using electret ion chambers and gamma-ray spectrometry. Appl Radiat Isot. 2008; 66(11): 1611-4.

Von Schirnding Y, Mathee A, Kibel M, Robertson P, Strauss N, Blignaut R. A study of pediatric blood lead levels in a lead mining area in South Africa. Environ Res. 2003; 93(3): 259-63.

Mathee A, von Schirnding YER, Levin J, Ismail A, Huntley R, Cantrell A. A survey of blood lead levels among young Johannesburg school children. Environ Res. 2002; 90(3): 181-4.

United Nations Population Division. Abortion Policies: A Global Review. New York, United States of America: United Nations (UN), 2002.

Foyaca-Sibat H, Cowan LD, Carabin H, Targonska I, Anwary MA, Serrano-Oca-a G, Krecek RC, Willingham AL 3rd. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009; 3(12): e562.

Nachega JB, Hislop M, Dowdy DW, Lo M, Omer SB, Regensberg L, Chaisson RE, Maartens G. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy assessed by pharmacy claims predicts survival in HIV-infected South African adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006; 43(1): 78-84.

Loening WE, Coovadia YM, Van den Ende J. Aetiological factors of infantile diarrhoea: a community-based study. Ann Trop Paediatr. 1989; 9(4): 248-55.

Zar HJ, Hanslo D, Tannenbaum E, Klein M, Argent A, Eley B, Burgess J, Magnus K, Bateman ED, Hussey G. Aetiology and outcome of pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children hospitalized in South Africa. Acta Paediatr. 2001; 90(2): 119-25.

INDEPTH. Africa, Asia, Oceania - INDEPTH Network Cause-Specific Mortality - Release 2014. Accra, Ghana: INDEPTH, 2014.

Kessler RC, Birnbaum HG, Shahly V, Bromet E, Hwang I, McLaughlin KA, Sampson N, Andrade LH, de Girolamo G, Demyttenaere K, Haro JM, Karam AN, Kostyuchenko S, Kovess V, Lara C, Levinson D, Matschinger H, Nakane Y, Browne MO, Ormel J, Posada-Villa J, Sagar R, Stein DJ. Age differences in the prevalence and co-morbidity of DSM-IV major depressive episodes: results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Depress Anxiety. 2010; 27(4): 351–64.

Cornell M, Johnson LF, Schomaker M, Tanser F, Maskew M, Wood R, Prozesky H, Giddy J, Stinson K, Egger M, Boulle A, Myer L, International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS-Southern Africa Collaboration. Age in antiretroviral therapy programmes in South Africa: a retrospective, multicentre, observational cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2015; 2(9): e368-375.

Anderegg N, Johnson LF, Zaniewski E, Althoff KN, Balestre E, Law M, Nash D, Shepherd BE, Yiannoutsos CT, Egger M, IeDEA, MeSH consortia. All-cause mortality in HIV-positive adults starting combination antiretroviral therapy: correcting for loss to follow-up. AIDS. 2017; 31 Suppl 1: S31–40.

Keddy KH, Takuva S, Musekiwa A, Puren AJ, Sooka A, Karstaedt A, Klugman KP, Angulo FJ. An association between decreasing incidence of invasive non-typhoidal salmonellosis and increased use of antiretroviral therapy, Gauteng Province, South Africa, 2003–2013. Vermund SH, editor. PLoS One. 2017; 12(3): e0173091.

Nzaumvila DK, Govender I, Ogunbanjo GA. An audit of the management of ectopic pregnancies in a district hospital, Gauteng, South Africa. Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med. 2018; 10(1): e1-e8.

Mahomed S, Archary M, Mutevedzi P, Mahabeer Y, Govender P, Ntshoe G, Kuhn W, Thomas J, Olowolagba A, Blumberg L, McCarthy K, Mlisana K, DU Plessis M, VON Gottberg A, Moodley P. An isolated outbreak of diphtheria in South Africa, 2015. Epidemiol Infect. 2017; 145(10): 2100-2108.

Mayet FGH, Schutte CHJ, Reinach SG. Anaemia among the inhabitants of a rural area in northern Natal. S Afr Med J. 1985; 67(12): 458-62.

Steyn K, Bourne L, Jooste P, Fourie JM, Rossouw K, Lombard C. Anthropometric profile of a black population of the Cape Peninsula in South Africa. East Afr Med J. 1998; 75(1): 35-40.

Fatti G, Mothibi E, Meintjes G, Grimwood A. Antiretroviral Treatment Outcomes amongst Older Adults in a Large Multicentre Cohort in South Africa. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6): e100273.

May PA, Blankenship J, Marais AS, Gossage JP, Kalberg WO, Barnard R, De Vries M, Robinson LK, Adnams CM, Buckley D, Manning M, Jones KL, Parry C, Hoyme HE, Seedat S. Approaching the prevalence of the full spectrum of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in a South African population-based study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2013; 37(5): 818–30.

Wesley AG, Loening WE. Assessment and 2-year follow-up of some factors associated with severity of respiratory infections in early childhood. S Afr Med J. 1996; 86(4): 365–8.

Kalla AA, Fataar AB, Bewerunge L. Assessment of age-related bone loss in normal South African women by means of the Hologic QDR 1000 system. S Afr Med J. 1994; 84(7): 398-404.

Wichmann J, Wolvaardt JE, Maritz C, Voyi KVV. Association between children's household living conditions and eczema in the Polokwane area, South Africa. Health Place. 2008; 14(2): 323-35.

den Boon S, Verver S, Marais BJ, Enarson DA, Lombard CJ, Bateman ED, Irusen E, Jithoo A, Gie RP, Borgdorff MW, Beyers N. Association Between Passive Smoking and Infection With Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Children. Pediatrics. 2007; 119(4): 734-9.

Tarnaud C, Lissouba P, Cutler E, Puren A, Taljaard D, Auvert B. Association of low-risk human papillomavirus infection with male circumcision in young men: results from a longitudinal study conducted in Orange Farm (South Africa). Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 567408.

Auvert B, Lissouba P, Cutler E, Zarca K, Puren A, Taljaard D. Association of oncogenic and nononcogenic human papillomavirus with HIV incidence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010; 53(1): 111–6.

Jewkes RK, Dunkle K, Nduna M, Jama PN, Puren A. Associations between childhood adversity and depression, substance abuse and HIV and HSV2 incident infections in rural South African youth. Child Abuse Negl. 2010; 34(11): 833–41.

O’Leary A, Jemmott JB, Jemmott LS, Teitelman A, Heeren GA, Ngwane Z, Icard LD, Lewis DA. Associations between psychosocial factors and incidence of sexually transmitted disease among South African adolescents. Sex Transm Dis. 2015; 42(3): 135–9.

Sebata T, Steele AD. Atypical rotavirus identified from young children with diarrhoea in South Africa. J Health Popul Nutr. 2001; 19(3): 199-203.

Grobler AC, Hay IT. Bacterial meningitis in children at Kalafong Hospital, 1990-1995. S Afr Med J. 1997; 87(8 Suppl): 1052-4.

Fatti G, Grimwood A, Bock P. Better antiretroviral therapy outcomes at primary healthcare facilities: an evaluation of three tiers of ART services in four South African provinces. PLoS One. 2010; 5(9): e12888.

Grobler SR, Rossouw RJ, Maresky LS. Blood lead levels in a remote, unpolluted rural area in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 1985; 68(5): 323-4.

Deveaux P, Kibel MA, Dempster WS, Pocock F, Formenti K. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town. S Afr Med J. 1986; 69(7): 421-4.

BP. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2016. London, United Kingdom: BP, 2016.

Naicker S. Burden of end-stage renal disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Nephrol. 2010; 74(Suppl 1): S13-6.

Olivier L, Urban M, Chersich M, Temmerman M, Viljoen D. Burden of fetal alcohol syndrome in a rural West Coast area of South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2013; 103(6): 402–5.

National Cancer Registry (South Africa). Cancer in South Africa Full Report 2003 . Johannesburg, South Africa: National Institute for Occupational Health (South Africa).

National Cancer Registry (South Africa). Cancer in South Africa Full Report 2004. Johannesburg, South Africa: National Institute for Occupational Health (South Africa).

National Cancer Registry (South Africa). Cancer in South Africa Full Report 2011. Johannesburg, South Africa: National Cancer Registry (South Africa).

Forman D, Bray F, Brewster DH, Gombe Mbalawa C, Kohler B, Piñeros M, Steliarova-Foucher E, Swaminathan R and Ferlay J, eds (2013). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. X Summary Database (electronic version). Lyon, IARC.

Bray F, Colombet M, Mery L, Piñeros M, Znaor A, Zanetti R and Ferlay J, editors (2017). Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, Vol. XI (electronic version). Lyon: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Available from:

Stefan C, Bray F, Ferlay J, Liu B, Maxwell Parkin D. Cancer of childhood in sub-Saharan Africa. ecancer. 2017; 11: 755.

Luyckx VA, Yip A, Sofianou L, Jhangri GS, Mueller TF, Naicker S. Cardiac function in an African dialysis population with a low prevalence of pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Ren Fail. 2009; 31(3): 211–20.

Hoffmann CJ, Schomaker M, Fox MP, Mutevedzi P, Giddy J, Prozesky H, Wood R, Garone DB, Egger M, Boulle A, IeDEA Southern Africa Collaboration. CD4 count slope and mortality in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy: multicohort analysis from South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013; 63(1): 34-41.

Abebe LS, Smith JA, Narkiewicz S, Oyanedel-Craver V, Conaway M, Singo A, Amidou S, Mojapelo P, Brant J, Dillingham R. Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits. J Water Health. 2014; 12(2): 288–300.

Ngomane L, de Jager C. Changes in malaria morbidity and mortality in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa (2001-2009): a retrospective study. Malar J. 2012; 19.