ALL GBD Mortality and Population Mortality Fertility Population Causes of Death and Disability Causes of Death Nonfatal Health Outcomes Risk Factors Covariates
All causes Communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS - Drug-susceptible Tuberculosis HIV/AIDS - Multidrug-resistant Tuberculosis without extensive drug resistance HIV/AIDS - Extensively drug-resistant Tuberculosis HIV/AIDS resulting in other diseases Sexually transmitted infections excluding HIV Syphilis Chlamydial infection Gonococcal infection Trichomoniasis Genital herpes Other sexually transmitted infections Respiratory infections and tuberculosis Tuberculosis Latent tuberculosis infection Drug-susceptible tuberculosis Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis without extensive drug resistance Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis Lower respiratory infections Upper respiratory infections Otitis media Enteric infections Diarrheal diseases Typhoid and paratyphoid Typhoid fever Paratyphoid fever Invasive Non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) Other intestinal infectious diseases Neglected tropical diseases and malaria Malaria Chagas disease Leishmaniasis Visceral leishmaniasis Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis African trypanosomiasis Schistosomiasis Cysticercosis Cystic echinococcosis Lymphatic filariasis Onchocerciasis Trachoma Dengue Yellow fever Rabies Intestinal nematode infections Ascariasis Trichuriasis Hookworm disease Food-borne trematodiases Leprosy Ebola Zika virus Guinea worm disease Other neglected tropical diseases Other infectious diseases Meningitis Encephalitis Diphtheria Whooping cough Tetanus Measles Varicella and herpes zoster Acute hepatitis Acute hepatitis A Acute hepatitis B Acute hepatitis C Acute hepatitis E Other unspecified infectious diseases Maternal and neonatal disorders Maternal disorders Maternal hemorrhage Maternal sepsis and other maternal infections Maternal hypertensive disorders Maternal obstructed labor and uterine rupture Maternal abortion and miscarriage Ectopic pregnancy Indirect maternal deaths Late maternal deaths Maternal deaths aggravated by HIV/AIDS Other maternal disorders Neonatal disorders Neonatal preterm birth Neonatal encephalopathy due to birth asphyxia and trauma Neonatal sepsis and other neonatal infections Hemolytic disease and other neonatal jaundice Other neonatal disorders Nutritional deficiencies Protein-energy malnutrition Iodine deficiency Vitamin A deficiency Dietary iron deficiency Other nutritional deficiencies Non-communicable diseases Neoplasms Lip and oral cavity cancer Nasopharynx cancer Other pharynx cancer Esophageal cancer Stomach cancer Colon and rectum cancer Liver cancer Liver cancer due to hepatitis B Liver cancer due to hepatitis C Liver cancer due to alcohol use Liver cancer due to NASH Liver cancer due to other causes Gallbladder and biliary tract cancer Pancreatic cancer Larynx cancer Tracheal, bronchus, and lung cancer Malignant skin melanoma Non-melanoma skin cancer Non-melanoma skin cancer (squamous-cell carcinoma) Non-melanoma skin cancer (basal-cell carcinoma) Breast cancer Cervical cancer Uterine cancer Ovarian cancer Prostate cancer Testicular cancer Kidney cancer Bladder cancer Brain and central nervous system cancer Thyroid cancer Mesothelioma Hodgkin lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Multiple myeloma Leukemia Acute lymphoid leukemia Chronic lymphoid leukemia Acute myeloid leukemia Chronic myeloid leukemia Other leukemia Other malignant neoplasms Other neoplasms Myelodysplastic, myeloproliferative, and other hematopoietic neoplasms Benign and in situ intestinal neoplasms Benign and in situ cervical and uterine neoplasms Other benign and in situ neoplasms Cardiovascular diseases Rheumatic heart disease Ischemic heart disease Stroke Ischemic stroke Intracerebral hemorrhage Subarachnoid hemorrhage Hypertensive heart disease Non-rheumatic valvular heart disease Non-rheumatic calcific aortic valve disease Non-rheumatic degenerative mitral valve disease Other non-rheumatic valve diseases Cardiomyopathy and myocarditis Myocarditis Alcoholic cardiomyopathy Other cardiomyopathy Atrial fibrillation and flutter Aortic aneurysm Peripheral artery disease Endocarditis Other cardiovascular and circulatory diseases Chronic respiratory diseases Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Pneumoconiosis Silicosis Asbestosis Coal workers pneumoconiosis Other pneumoconiosis Asthma Interstitial lung disease and pulmonary sarcoidosis Other chronic respiratory diseases Digestive diseases Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to hepatitis B Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to hepatitis C Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to alcohol use Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to NAFLD Cirrhosis and other chronic liver diseases due to other causes Upper digestive system diseases Peptic ulcer disease Gastritis and duodenitis Gastroesophageal reflux disease Appendicitis Paralytic ileus and intestinal obstruction Inguinal, femoral, and abdominal hernia Inflammatory bowel disease Vascular intestinal disorders Gallbladder and biliary diseases Pancreatitis Other digestive diseases Neurological disorders Alzheimer's disease and other dementias Parkinson's disease Idiopathic epilepsy Multiple sclerosis Motor neuron disease Headache disorders Migraine Tension-type headache Other neurological disorders Mental disorders Schizophrenia Depressive disorders Major depressive disorder Dysthymia Bipolar disorder Anxiety disorders Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Bulimia nervosa Autism spectrum disorders Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder Conduct disorder Idiopathic developmental intellectual disability Other mental disorders Substance use disorders Alcohol use disorders Drug use disorders Opioid use disorders Cocaine use disorders Amphetamine use disorders Cannabis use disorders Other drug use disorders Diabetes and kidney diseases Diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus type 1 Diabetes mellitus type 2 Chronic kidney disease Chronic kidney disease due to diabetes mellitus type 1 Chronic kidney disease due to diabetes mellitus type 2 Chronic kidney disease due to hypertension Chronic kidney disease due to glomerulonephritis Chronic kidney disease due to other and unspecified causes Acute glomerulonephritis Skin and subcutaneous diseases Dermatitis Atopic dermatitis Contact dermatitis Seborrhoeic dermatitis Psoriasis Bacterial skin diseases Cellulitis Pyoderma Scabies Fungal skin diseases Viral skin diseases Acne vulgaris Alopecia areata Pruritus Urticaria Decubitus ulcer Other skin and subcutaneous diseases Sense organ diseases Blindness and vision loss Glaucoma Cataract Age-related macular degeneration Refraction disorders Near vision loss Other vision loss Age-related and other hearing loss Other sense organ diseases Musculoskeletal disorders Rheumatoid arthritis Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis hip Osteoarthritis knee Osteoarthritis hand Osteoarthritis other Low back pain Neck pain Gout Other musculoskeletal disorders Other non-communicable diseases Congenital birth defects Neural tube defects Congenital heart anomalies Orofacial clefts Down syndrome Turner syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Other chromosomal abnormalities Congenital musculoskeletal and limb anomalies Urogenital congenital anomalies Digestive congenital anomalies Other congenital birth defects Urinary diseases and male infertility Urinary tract infections and interstitial nephritis Urolithiasis Benign prostatic hyperplasia Male infertility Other urinary diseases Gynecological diseases Uterine fibroids Polycystic ovarian syndrome Female infertility Endometriosis Genital prolapse Premenstrual syndrome Other gynecological diseases Hemoglobinopathies and hemolytic anemias Thalassemias Thalassemias trait Sickle cell disorders Sickle cell trait G6PD deficiency G6PD trait Other hemoglobinopathies and hemolytic anemias Endocrine, metabolic, blood, and immune disorders Oral disorders Caries of deciduous teeth Caries of permanent teeth Periodontal diseases Edentulism Other oral disorders Sudden infant death syndrome Injuries Transport injuries Road injuries Pedestrian road injuries Cyclist road injuries Motorcyclist road injuries Motor vehicle road injuries Other road injuries Other transport injuries Unintentional injuries Falls Drowning Fire, heat, and hot substances Poisonings Poisoning by carbon monoxide Poisoning by other means Exposure to mechanical forces Unintentional firearm injuries Other exposure to mechanical forces Adverse effects of medical treatment Animal contact Venomous animal contact Non-venomous animal contact Foreign body Pulmonary aspiration and foreign body in airway Foreign body in eyes Foreign body in other body part Environmental heat and cold exposure Exposure to forces of nature Other unintentional injuries Self-harm and interpersonal violence Self-harm Self-harm by firearm Self-harm by other specified means Interpersonal violence Physical violence by firearm Physical violence by sharp object Sexual violence Physical violence by other means Conflict and terrorism Executions and police conflict Total cancers Total burden related to hepatitis B Total burden related to hepatitis C Total burden related to Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
Impairments Anemia Epilepsy Guillain-Barré syndrome Hearing loss Heart failure Infertility Developmental intellectual disability Pelvic inflammatory disease Blindness and vision loss
All risk factors Environmental/occupational risks Unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing Unsafe water source Unsafe sanitation No access to handwashing facility Air pollution Particulate matter pollution Ambient particulate matter pollution Household air pollution from solid fuels Ambient ozone pollution Non-optimal temperature High temperature Low temperature Other environmental risks Residential radon Lead exposure Occupational risks Occupational carcinogens Occupational exposure to asbestos Occupational exposure to arsenic Occupational exposure to benzene Occupational exposure to beryllium Occupational exposure to cadmium Occupational exposure to chromium Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust Occupational exposure to formaldehyde Occupational exposure to nickel Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Occupational exposure to silica Occupational exposure to sulfuric acid Occupational exposure to trichloroethylene Occupational asthmagens Occupational particulate matter, gases, and fumes Occupational noise Occupational injuries Occupational ergonomic factors Behavioral risks Child and maternal malnutrition Suboptimal breastfeeding Non-exclusive breastfeeding Discontinued breastfeeding Child growth failure Child underweight Child wasting Child stunting Low birth weight and short gestation Short gestation Low birth weight Iron deficiency Vitamin A deficiency Zinc deficiency Tobacco Smoking Chewing tobacco Secondhand smoke Alcohol use Drug use Dietary risks Diet low in fruits Diet low in vegetables Diet low in legumes Diet low in whole grains Diet low in nuts and seeds Diet low in milk Diet high in red meat Diet high in processed meat Diet high in sugar-sweetened beverages Diet low in fiber Diet low in calcium Diet low in seafood omega-3 fatty acids Diet low in polyunsaturated fatty acids Diet high in trans fatty acids Diet high in sodium Intimate partner violence Childhood sexual abuse and bullying Childhood sexual abuse Bullying victimization Unsafe sex Low physical activity Metabolic risks High fasting plasma glucose High LDL cholesterol High systolic blood pressure High body-mass index Low bone mineral density Kidney dysfunction
All Covariates 10-year lag distributed energy per capita 12-month non-partner sexual violence 90th percentile climatic temperature in the given country-year. Adult HIV crude death rate Adult HIV death rate Adult HIV death rate both sexes Age-Standardize Prevalence of Severe Anemia Age-standardized bone mineral density among population age 60+ years Age-standardized death rate of diabetes (0-15 years) (per 100,000) Age-standardized melanoma Age-standardized prevalence of cannabis dependence in women of reproductive age Age-standardized prevalence of cocaine dependence in women of reproductive-age Age-standardized prevalence of opioid dependence in women of reproductive age Age-standardized proportion adult underweight Alcohol abstainer proportion, age-standardized Alcohol binge drinker proportion, age-standardized Alcohol consumption, age standardized, in grams per day Alcohol drinker proportion, age-standardized All age underweight Antenatal Care (1 visit) Coverage (proportion) Antenatal Care (4 visits) Coverage (proportion) Antibiotics for LRI Antimalarial effective treatment ratio_MAP Antimalarial effective treatment_MAP Asbestos consumption (metric tons per year per capita) BAC law professional drivers (quartile) BAC law general population (quartile) BAC law youth drivers (quartile) Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine coverage (proportion) Birth prevalence of CHD Birth prevalence of congenital chromosomal anomalies calcium unadjusted(g) chagasPrevPAHO Cholesterol (total, mean per capita) Coastal Population within 10km (proportion) Composite fortification standard and folic acid inclusion Composite fortification standard and iron inclusion Contraception (Modern) Prevalence (proportion by age) Contraception (Modern) Prevalence (proportion) Cumulative Cigarettes (10 Years) Cumulative Cigarettes (15 Years) Cumulative Cigarettes (20 Years) Cumulative Cigarettes (5 Years) Demand for contraception satisfied with modern methods Demand for contraception satisfied with modern methods, by age Dengue outbreaks (binary) Dentists per capita Diabetes Age-Specific Prevalence (proportion) Diabetes Age-Standardized Prevalence (proportion) Diabetes Fasting Plasma Glucose (mmol/L), age-standardized 25+ Diabetes Fasting Plasma Glucose (mmol/L), by age Diet high in sodium Diet high in trans fatty acids Dietary zinc unadjusted (mg) DTP3 Coverage (proportion) DTP3 lagged five year coverage (proportion) echinococcosis endemicity Education (years per capita) Education (years per capita) aggregated by age (15+) and sex Education Absolute Inequality (AAID) Education Absolute Inequality (AAID), age-standardized Education Absolute Inequality (AAID), maternal Education age-standardized Education Relative Inequality (Gini) Education Relative Inequality (Gini), age-standardized Education Relative Inequality (Gini), maternal Elevation 100 to 500m (proportion) Elevation 500 to 1500m (proportion) Elevation Over 1500m (proportion) Elevation Under 100m (proportion) energy unadjusted(kcal) Enhanced Vegetation Index long term average 2000-2012 (mean) Female HIV death rate per 1 for ages 15-49 fiber unadjusted(g) Folic acid unadjusted (ug) Fortification standard Fortification standard including folic acid Fortification standard including iron Fraction of OOP Health Expenditure fruits unadjusted(g) Gallup: Negative Experience Index GDP per capita base 2010 Gold production (kg) per capita Gold production (kg) per capita, smoothed with 20-year lag Health expenditure (per capita) Health Industry Workers Health worker density Hemoglobin C (sickle type C) trait Hemoglobin S (sickle type S) trait Hemoglobinopathies Prevalence x Excess Mortality Hemoglobinopathies Prevalence x Excess Mortality (excluding G6PD deficiency) Hepatitis A Seroprevalence (anti-HAV) age standardized Hepatitis B 3-dose coverage (proportion) Hepatitis B 3-dose coverage (proportion), lagged 10 years Hepatitis B 3-dose coverage (proportion), lagged 5 years Hepatitis B Seroprevalence (HBsAg) age standardized Hepatitis B vaccine coverage (proportion), aged through time Hepatitis C Seroprevalence (anti-HCV) age standardized Hepatitis E Seroprevalence (anti-HEV) age standardized HepB3 lagged five year coverage (proportion) Hib3 lagged five year coverage (proportion) Hib3 Vaccine Coverage (proportion) HIV age-standardized prevalence HIV mortality rate HIV mortality, females, 10-54 HIV Prevalence Unadjusted (proportion) Hospital Beds (per 1000) Improved Water Source (proportion with access) In-Facility Delivery (proportion) Indoor Air Pollution (All Cooking Fuels) Inpatient utilization envelope Intravenous drug use (age-standardized proportion) Intravenous drug use (proportion by age) Iron energy unadjusted (mg) Japanese encelphalitis endemic area (binary) LDI (I$ per capita) Lead exposure Lead Gas Outphase (binary) Legality of Abortion Liters of alcohol consumed per capita Log total health expenditure per capita Log-transformed coal production (per capita) Low bone mineral density Major depressive disorder Malaria incidence_MAP Malaria Lysenko PFPR 1 (Holoendemic) Malaria PfPR_MAP Malnutrition Shock log-transformed mortality rate Malnutrition Shock mortality rate Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy (proportion) Maternal care and immunization Maternal Education (years per capita) Max Trachoma Population at risk MCV1 lagged five year coverage (proportion) MCV2 lagged five year coverage (proportion) Mean BMI Mean Hemoglobin Mean hemoglobin concentration (age-standardized) Mean hemoglobin, age sex specific Mean war mortality rate in the previous ten years Measles Vaccine Coverage (proportion) Measles Vaccine Coverage 2 doses (proportion) meningitis belt (proportion) milk unadjusted(g) MMR due to abortion and miscarriage MMR due to ectopic pregnancy MMR due to maternal hemorrhage MMR due to maternal hypertensive disorders MMR due to obstructed labor MMR due to sepsis and other maternal infections Mortality Rate Due to Death Shocks in Last 10 Years (per 1 person) Mortality Rate Due to War Shocks (per 1 person) Muslim Religion (proportion of population) NAFLD/NASH prevalence No access to handwashing facility Nurses and Midwives per capita nuts seeds unadjusted(g) Occupation Professionals Opioids per million population per day Opioids per million population per day (10 year lag) Opioids per million population per day (5 year lag) Opium Cultivation (binary) ORS (oral rehydration) Outdoor Air Pollution (PM2.5) PCV3 Coverage (proportion) PCV3 lagged five year coverage (proportion) Pelvic inflammatory disease age-standardized prevalence Pelvic inflammatory disease all-age prevalence Pharmacists per capita Physicians per capita Pigs (per capita) Polio 3-dose coverage (proportion) Polio3 lagged five year coverage (proportion) Population Density (300-500 ppl/sqkm, proportion) Population Density (500-1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion) Population Density (over 1000 ppl/sqkm, proportion) Population Density (under 150 ppl/sqkm, proportion) Population weighted probability of dengue transmission Population-weighted mean temperature Poultry energy unadjusted (g) Prevalence of obesity Prevalence of obesity (age-standardized) Prevalence of overweight and obesity Proportion of cirrhosis due to alcohol Proportion of cirrhosis due to hepatitis B Proportion of cirrhosis due to hepatitis C Proportion of cirrhosis due to NASH Proportion of cirrhosis due to other causes Proportion of households using iodized salt (adjusted) Proportion of liver cancer due to alcohol (Age Standardized) Proportion of liver cancer due to hepatitis B (Age Standardized) Proportion of liver cancer due to hepatitis C (Age Standardized) Proportion of liver cancer due to NASH (Age Standardized) Proportion of liver cancer due to other causes (Age Standardized) Proportion of population involved in agricultural activities Proportion of the population living in the classic monsoon region Proportion of the population living in the classic monsoon region (low-income countries) Proportion of the population living in the Indian Ocean monsoon belt Proportion of the population with 0 years of education Proportion of the population with 0 years of education, age-standardized Proportion of the population with 0 years of education, maternal Proportion of the population with at least 12 years of education Proportion of the population with at least 12 years of education, age-standardized Proportion of the population with at least 12 years of education, maternal Proportion of the population with at least 15 years of education Proportion of the population with at least 15 years of education, age-standardized Proportion of the population with at least 15 years of education, maternal Proportion of the population with at least 6 years of education Proportion of the population with at least 6 years of education, age-standardized Proportion of the population with at least 6 years of education, maternal Proportion of the population working in mining with 20-year lag Proportion of total population covered by menafrivac initiative (meningitis meningococcal type A vaccine) pufa adjusted(percent) Pulses legumes unadjusted(g) Rainfall (Quintiles 2-5) Rainfall (Quintiles 3-5) Rainfall (Quintiles 4-5) Rainfall Population-Weighted (mm/yr) Rainfall Quintile 1 (proportion) Rainfall Quintile 2 (proportion) Rainfall Quintile 3 (proportion) Rainfall Quintile 4 (proportion) Rainfall Quintile 5 (proportion) RCV1 lagged five year coverage (proportion) red meats unadjusted(g) Religion (binary, >50% Muslim) Residential radon RotaC lagged five year coverage (proportion) Rotavirus coverage (proportion) Rubella Vaccine Coverage (Proportion) Sanitation (proportion with access) Schisto cumulative treatments Schistosomiasis Prevalence (proportion) Schistosomiasis Prevalence Results Secondhand smoke Skilled Birth Attendance (proportion) Smoking Prevalence Smoking Prevalence (Age-standardized, both sexes) Smoking Prevalence (Age-standardized, females) Smoking Prevalence (Age-standardized, males) Smoking Prevalence (Reproductive Age Standardized) Smooth outphase of leaded gasoline Socio-demographic Index Speed limit law rural (quartile) Speed limit law urban (quartile) sugar unadjusted(g) Syphilis prevalence (proportion) Systolic Blood Pressure (mmHg) TB strain prevalence-weighted transmission RR Tetanus Toxoid Coverage Smooth (proportion) Tobacco (cigarettes per capita) Total Physical Activity (MET-min/week), Age-specific Total Physical Activity (MET-min/week), Age-standardized Tuberculosis infection risk-weighted prevalence (age-standardized) Tuberculosis prevalence (age-standardized) Under 5 HIV death rate Underweight women of reproductive age Underweight women, age specific Urbanicity vegetables unadjusted(g) Vehicles - 2 wheels (per capita) Vehicles - 2 wheels fraction (proportion) Vehicles - 2+4 wheels (per capita) Vehicles - 4 wheels (per capita) Vitamin A Deficiency Prevalence (age-standardized) vitamin a rae unadjusted (ug) vitamin a retinol unadjusted (ug) Vitamin A supplementation coverage rate vitamin a unadjusted (iu) WHO STH MDA Coverage Zinc deficiency Zinc treatment for diarrhea
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Thurrock Greater London Barking and Dagenham Barnet Bexley Brent Bromley Camden Croydon Ealing Enfield Greenwich Hackney Hammersmith and Fulham Haringey Harrow Havering Hillingdon Hounslow Islington Kensington and Chelsea Kingston upon Thames Lambeth Lewisham Merton Newham Redbridge Richmond upon Thames Southwark Sutton Tower Hamlets Waltham Forest Wandsworth Westminster North East England County Durham Darlington Gateshead Hartlepool Middlesbrough Newcastle upon Tyne North Tyneside Northumberland Redcar and Cleveland South Tyneside Stockton-on-Tees Sunderland North West England Blackburn with Darwen Blackpool Bolton Bury Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester Cumbria Halton Knowsley Lancashire Liverpool Manchester Oldham Rochdale Salford Sefton St Helens Stockport Tameside Trafford Warrington Wigan Wirral South East England Bracknell Forest Brighton and Hove Buckinghamshire East Sussex Hampshire Isle of Wight Kent Medway Milton Keynes Oxfordshire Portsmouth Reading Slough Southampton 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Results Results for component: Nonfatal Health Outcomes, cause: Musculoskeletal disorders, location: Australia. Total Citations: 14 Total Source Metadata Rows: 345
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australia Disability, Ageing, and Carers Survey 2003.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australia Disability, Ageing, and Carers Survey 2009.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australia National Health Survey 1995. Canberra, Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australia National Health Survey 2001. Canberra, Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australia National Health Survey 2004-2005.
Australian Bureau of Statistics. Australia National Health Survey 2007-2008. Canberra, Australia: Australian Bureau of Statistics.
Department of Health and Ageing (Australia), World Health Organization (WHO). Australia World Health Survey 2003. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization (WHO), 2005.
World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (EURO-WHO). Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO Collaborative Cross-National survey/study (HBSC) 2010.
Broom AF, Kirby ER, Sibbritt DW, Adams J, Refshauge KM. Back pain amongst mid-age Australian women: A longitudinal analysis of provider use and self-prescribed treatments. Complement Ther Med. 2012; 20(5): 275-82.
Szoeke CEI, Cicuttini FM, Guthrie JR, Clark MS, Dennerstein L. Factors affecting the prevalence of osteoarthritis in healthy middle-aged women: data from the longitudinal Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Bone. 2006; 39(5): 1149-1155.
Grimmer K, Nyland L, Milanese S. Longitudinal investigation of low back pain in Australian adolescents: a five-year study. Physiother Res Int. 2006; 11(3): 161-72.
O'Sullivan PB, Beales DJ, Smith AJ, Straker LM. Low back pain in 17 year olds has substantial impact and represents an important public health disorder: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12(1): 100.
Walker BF, Muller R, Grant WD. Low back pain in Australian adults: prevalence and associated disability. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2004; 27(4): 238-44.
Kodama R, Muraki S, Oka H, Iidaka T, Teraguchi M, Kagotani R, Asai Y, Yoshida M, Morizaki Y, Tanaka S, Kawaguchi H, Nakamura K, Akune T, Yoshimura N. Prevalence of hand osteoarthritis and its relationship to hand pain and grip strength in Japan: The third survey of the ROAD study. Mod Rheumatol. 2016; 26(5): 767-73.