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Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017) Data Input Sources Tool

These data are not from the current GBD round. Please see this page for GBD 2019 data. Please contact [email protected] with any questions.

The Global Burden of Disease Study 2017 (GBD 2017) synthesizes a large number of input sources to estimate mortality, causes of death and illness, and risk factors.

The Data Input Sources Tool lets you explore GBD 2017 input sources and retrieve relevant metadata.

Use the selection boxes below to see these input sources by GBD component, geography, and cause. After you have made your selection, you can view and access GHDx catalog records for input sources used by GBD.

Download these input sources as a CSV file to see more information about how they were used in the analysis for the Global Burden of Disease. This CSV file contains relevant metadata about the input sources as suggested in the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER), a statement that promotes best practices in reporting health estimates.

For detailed information on the tool and the contents of the CSV files, refer to the following documents:

If you do not want to wait for your results to download, you can be notified by email by clicking on email download
Results for Risk Factors, China, High systolic blood pressure
Total Results: 114

Note that total results refers to the number of distinct input sources listed here. Your download may have many more rows.

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Zheng M, Xu X, Wang X, Huo Y, Xu X, Qin X, Tang G, Xing H, Fan F, Cui W, Yang X. Age, arterial stiffness, and components of blood pressure in Chinese adults. Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93(29): e262.

Fan JG, Cai XB, Li L, Li XJ, Dai F, Zhu J. Alcohol consumption and metabolic syndrome among Shanghai adults: a randomized multistage stratified cluster sampling investigation. World J Gastroenterol. 2008; 14(15): 2418-24.

Yu S, Guo X, Yang H, Zheng L, Sun Y. An update on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors in rural northeast China. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14: 877.

Chen S, Guo X, Yu S, Zhou Y, Li Z, Sun Y. Anthropometric Indices in Adults: Which Is the Best Indicator to Identify Alanine Aminotransferase Levels?. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016; 13(2): 226.

Liu M, He Y, Jiang B, Wang J, Wu L, Wang Y, Zhang D, Zeng J, Yao Y. Association Between Family History and Hypertension Among Chinese Elderly. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(48): e2226.

Zhou Z, Hu D, Chen J. Association between obesity indices and blood pressure or hypertension: which index is the best?. Public Health Nutr. 2009; 12(8): 1061–71.

Wang F, Ye P, Luo L, Xiao W, Qi L, Bian S, Wu H, Sheng L, Xiao T, Xu R. Association of serum lipids with arterial stiffness in a population-based study in Beijing. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011; 41(9): 929–36.

Zhao Y, Yang K, Wang F, Liang Y, Peng Y, Shen R, Wong T, Wang N. Associations between metabolic syndrome and syndrome components and retinal microvascular signs in a rural Chinese population: the Handan Eye Study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012; 250(12): 1755–63.

O’Seaghdha CM, Perkovic V, Lam TH, McGinn S, Barzi F, Gu DF, Cass A, Suh I, Muntner P, Giles GG, Ueshima H, Woodward M, Huxley R. Blood Pressure Is a Major Risk Factor for Renal Death. Hypertension. 2009; 54(3): 509–15.

Niu J, Seo D-C. Central obesity and hypertension in Chinese adults: a 12-year longitudinal examination. Prev Med. 2014; 62: 113–8.

Xu J, Xu L, Du KF, Shao L, Chen CX, Zhou JQ, Wang YX, You QS, Jonas JB, Wei WB. Subfoveal choroidal thickness in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy [Unpublished data]. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct;120(10):2023-8.

Xu J, Xu L, Du KF, Shao L, Chen CX, Zhou JQ, Wang YX, You QS, Jonas JB, Wei WB. Subfoveal choroidal thickness in diabetes and diabetic retinopathy [Unpublished data]. Ophthalmology. 2013 Oct;120(10):2023-8.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC). China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance 2010.

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC). China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance 2013.

Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC). China Health and Nutrition Survey 1989-2011. Chapel Hill, United States of America: Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC). China Health and Nutrition Survey 2004.

China Center for Economic Research, Peking University. China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2008. Beijing, China: China Center for Economic Research, Peking University.

China Center for Economic Research, Peking University. China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2011-2012. Beijing, China: China Center for Economic Research, Peking University.

China Center for Economic Research, Peking University. China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study Pilot Resurvey 2012. Beijing, China: China Center for Economic Research, Peking University.

Center for Healthy Aging and Family Studies, Peking University, China Mainland Information Group, China Research Center on Aging, Duke University, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research. China Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey 1998-2009.

Ministry of Health (China), National Center for Chronic and Noncommunicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CCDC), World Health Organization (WHO). China WHO Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health 2007-2010.

Dorjgochoo T, Ou Shu X, Xiang Y-B, Yang G, Cai Q, Li H, Ji B-T, Cai H, Gao Y-T, Zheng W. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in relation to blood pressure parameters and hypertension in the Shanghai Women’s and Men’s Health Studies. Br J Nutr. 2012; 108(3): 449–58.

Suzuki T, Zeng Z, Zhao B, Wei Z, Tanabe M, Shimbo T, Kajio H, Kato N, Naruse M. Comparison of coronary heart disease risk among four diagnostic definitions of metabolic syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest. 2016; 39(11): 1337–46.

Le C, Chongsuvivatwong V, Geater A. Contextual socioeconomic determinants of cardiovascular risk factors in rural south-west China: a multilevel analysis. BMC Public Health. 2007; 72.

Wen Z, Bi-Rong D, Chang-Quan H, Zhen-Chan L, Yuan Z, Hong-Mei W, Yan-Ling Z, Hui W, Ping H. Depression and hypertension among Chinese nonagenarians and centenarians. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010; 25(6): 554–61.

Mezuk B, Chen Y, Yu C, Guo Y, Bian Z, Collins R, Chen J, Pang Z, Wang H, Peto R, Que X, Zhang H, Tan Z, Kendler KS, Li L, Chen Z. Depression, anxiety, and prevalent diabetes in the Chinese population: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5 million people. J Psychosom Res. 2013; 75(6): 511–7.

Tyrovolas S, Koyanagi A, Garin N, Olaya B, Ayuso-Mateos JL, Miret M, Chatterji S, Tobiasz-Adamczyk B, Koskinen S, Leonardi M, Haro JM. Determinants of the components of arterial pressure among older adults--the role of anthropometric and clinical factors: a multi-continent study. Atherosclerosis. 2015; 238(2): 240–9.

Lu B, Hu J, Wen J, Zhang Z, Zhou L, Li Y, Hu R. Determination of peripheral neuropathy prevalence and associated factors in Chinese subjects with diabetes and pre-diabetes - ShangHai Diabetic neuRopathy Epidemiology and Molecular Genetics Study (SH-DREAMS). PLoS One. 2013; 8(4): e61053.

Zhang YH, Ma WJ, Thomas GN, Xu YJ, Lao XQ, Xu XJ, Song XL, Xu HF, Cai QM, Xia L, Nie SP, Deng HH, Yu IT. Diabetes and pre-diabetes as determined by glycated haemoglobin A1c and glucose levels in a developing southern Chinese population. PLoS One. 2012; 7(5): e37260.

Lin L, Chen G, Zou X, Zhao J, Zhu F, Tu M, Xu S, Lin W, Yang S, Zhang Y, Lin M, Chen N, Huang H, Liang J, Li L, Yao J. Diabetes, pre-diabetes and associated risks on Minnesota code-indicated major electrocardiogram abnormality among Chinese: a cross-sectional diabetic study in Fujian province, southeast China. Obes Rev. 2009; 10(4): 420-30.

Wang D, He Y, Li Y, Luan D, Yang X, Zhai F, Ma G. Dietary patterns and hypertension among Chinese adults: a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2011; 11: 925.

Berrios X, Koponen T, Huiguang T, Khaltaev N, Puska P, Nissinen A. Distribution and prevalence of major risk factors of noncommunicable diseases in selected countries: the WHO Inter-Health Programme. Bull World Health Organ. 1997; 75(2): 99-108.

Ye X, Yu Z, Li H, Franco O, Liu Y, Lin X. Distributions of C-Reactive Protein and its Association With Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese People. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007; 49(17): 1798-805.

Lao XQ, Ma WJ, Sobko T, Zhang YH, Xu YJ, Xu XJ, Yu DM, Nie SP, Cai QM, Wei XL, Xia L, Wong MC-S. Dramatic escalation in metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk in a Chinese population experiencing rapid economic development. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14: 983.

Jia W, Xiang K, Chen L, Lu J, Wu Y. Epidemiological study on obesity and its comorbidities in urban Chinese older than 20 years of age in Shanghai, China. Obes Rev. 2002; 3(3): 157-65.

Xin Z, Yuan M-X, Li H-X, Hua L, Feng J-P, Shi J, Zhu X-R, Cao X, Yang J-K. Evaluation for fasting and 2-hour glucose and HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes based on prevalence of retinopathy in a Chinese population. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7): e40610.

He Y-H, Chen Y-C, Jiang G-X, Huang H-E, Li R, Li X-Y, Ning G, Cheng Q. Evaluation of anthropometric indices for metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults aged 40 years and over. Eur J Nutr. 2012; 51(1): 81–7.

Zhou H, Guo Z, Yu L, Hu X, Xu B, Liu H, Wu M, Zhou Z. Evidence on the applicability of the ATPIII, IDF and CDS metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria to identify CVD and T2DM in the Chinese population from a 6.3-year cohort study in mid-eastern China. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010; 90(3): 319–25.

Sheng C-S, Liu M, Zeng W-F, Huang Q-F, Li Y, Wang J-G. Four-limb blood pressure as predictors of mortality in elderly Chinese. Hypertension. 2013; 61(6): 1155-60.

Duan Y, Wang X, Peng W, Feng Y, Tang W, Wu X, Mao X, Bo R, Li W, Chen J, Qin Y, Liu C, Liu C. Gender-specific associations between subclinical hypothyroidism and blood pressure in Chinese adults. Endocrine. 2009; 36(3): 438–44.

Qian Q, Li X, Huang X, Fu M, Meng Z, Chen M, Feng B. Glucose metabolism among residents in Shanghai: natural outcome of a 5-year follow-up study. J Endocrinol Invest. 2012; 35(5): 453–8.

Sun G-Z, Li Z, Guo L, Zhou Y, Yang H-M, Sun Y-X. High prevalence of dyslipidemia and associated risk factors among rural Chinese adults. Lipids Health Dis. 2014; 13: 189.

Bi Z, Liang X, Xu A, Wang L, Shi X, Zhao W, Ma J, Guo X, Zhang X, Zhang J, Ren J, Yan L, Lu Z, Wang H, Tang J, Cai X, Dong J, Zhang J, Chu J, Engelgau M, Yang Q, Hong Y, Wang Y. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control and sodium intake in Shandong Province, China: baseline results from Shandong-Ministry of Health Action on Salt Reduction and Hypertension (SMASH), 2011. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014; 11: E88.

Li W, Gu H, Teo KK, Bo J, Wang Y, Yang J, Wang X, Zhang H, Sun Y, Jia X, He X, Zhao X, Cheng X, Li J, Rangarajan S, Chen C, Yusuf S, Liu L. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control in 115 rural and urban communities involving 47 000 people from China. J Hypertens. 2016; 34(1): 39-46.

Lao XQ, Xu YJ, Wong MCS, Zhang YH, Ma WJ, Xu XJ, Cai QM, Xu HF, Wei XL, Tang JL, Griffiths SM. Hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and associated factors in a developing southern Chinese population: analysis of serial cross-sectional health survey data 2002-2010. Am J Hypertens. 2013; 26(11): 1335–45.

Lin S, Cheng TO, Liu X, Mai J, Rao X, Gao X, Deng H, Shi M. Impact of dysglycemia, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio on the prevalence of systemic hypertension in a lean Chinese population. Am J Cardiol. 2006; 97(6): 839-42.

Xu L, Jiang CQ, Lam TH, Cheng KK, Yue XJ, Lin JM, Zhang WS, Thomas GN. Impact of impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance on arterial stiffness in an older Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study-CVD. Metab Clin Exp. 2010; 59(3): 367–72.

Hou X, Lu J, Weng J, Ji L, Shan Z, Liu J, Tian H, Ji Q, Zhu D, Ge J, Lin L, Chen L, Guo X, Zhao Z, Li Q, Zhou Z, Shan G, Yang Z, Yang W, Jia W, China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study Group. Impact of waist circumference and body mass index on risk of cardiometabolic disorder and cardiovascular disease in Chinese adults: a national diabetes and metabolic disorders survey. PLoS One. 2013; 8(3): e57319.

Lu K, Chen J, Wu S, Chen J, Hu D. Interaction of Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality on Hypertension Prevalence in Adult Chinese Males. J Epidemiol. 2015; 25(6): 415–22.

Katz EG, Stevens J, Truesdale KP, Cai J, North KE. Interactions between obesity, parental history of hypertension, and age on prevalent hypertension: the People’s Republic of China Study. Asia Pac J Public Health. 2012; 24(6): 970–80.

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